Since the great plague and cholera epidemics that occurred before the twentieth century, there have been a number of other pandemics starting with the Spanish Flu in 1918. In December, 2019, a new coronavirus, now recognized as COVID-19, began to cause respiratory illness in Wuhan, China. The epidemic began in a fish market and is most similar to snake, pangolin, horseshoe crab, and bat corona viruses. In humans it is spread by respiratory droplets. It can remain alive on plastic surfaces for over 72 hours. It is spread by respiratory droplets. At the Shattuck lecture in Boston in 2018. Bill Gates called for a “clear road map for a comprehensive pandemic preparedness and response system (1).”

(1) J.E. Morley , B. Vellas J Nutr Health Aging. 2020;

Edito J. Morley